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Each subscriber list can have a maximum of 50 custom fields.

Before the merge, look at the types of data you have in each list to see if they're going to match up. For example, let's say both the master list and merge list have a "Post Code" custom field, and the data type applied to the field on the master list is numeric .

If any "Post Code" values in the merge list contain numbers and letters, the field values will be excluded from the import, as shown is this example file import report:

If you choose an existing subscriber list as your master list and it includes subscribers who are also on your merge list, the field values contained in the merge list will overwrite values for any matching custom fields on the master list.

For example, let's say both the master list and merge list have a "Relationship Status" custom field and Sally Sparrow is a subscriber on both lists. Sally's status on the master list is "married", but on the merge list it's "single".

When the merge list is imported to the master list the "Relationship Status" field value will be changed to "single". If there is no value for "Relationship Status" in the merge list, the value in the master list will still be "married". In other words, a blank field does not override a field with a value.

If your master list contains "multiple option (can select many)" custom fields, ALEXANDRE BIRMAN Suede plateau ankle boots FwGaXKMMwM
to merge values instead of overwriting them.

The date "Joined" and "Active since" dates for matching subscribers will be overwritten. These dates on the master list will be overwritten by the date on the day that you merge lists.

If you choose an existing subscriber list as your master list and the lists you merge into it contain some of the same subscribers, subscriber history for those people (opens, clicks, shares and so on) will not be transferred across to the master list.

This is because campaign activity for individual subscribers is recorded as a subscriber snapshot , and there's a unique snapshot for every list a subscriber is on.

Segments are created using subscriber field values so it's definitely a good idea to make sure these are working as expected after you have merged lists.

Check to see if subscribers who were part of a segment on your master list before the merge are still in the segment. Also check to see if subscribers from the merge list who should become part of a segment have been added to it.

Now that your subscribers are neatly merged into one master list, there's a few final things worth doing to achieve total list zen.

Immediately after merging lists is the best time to make sure your subscriber data has merged as expected. Here are some ways you can check:

According to Martin Nowak, a Harvard professor of mathematics and evolutionary biology "We cannot calculate the probability that an eye came about. We don't have the information to make the calculation". [6]

Dembski's critics note that specified complexity, as originally defined by Leslie Orgel, is precisely what Darwinian evolution is supposed to create. Critics maintain that Dembski uses "complex" as most people would use "absurdly improbable". They also claim that his argument is circular : CSI cannot occur naturally because Dembski has defined it thus. They argue that to successfully demonstrate the existence of CSI, it would be necessary to show that some biological feature undoubtedly has an extremely low probability of occurring by any natural means whatsoever, something which Dembski and others have almost never attempted to do. Such calculations depend on the accurate assessment of numerous contributing probabilities, the determination of which is often necessarily subjective. Hence, CSI can at most provide a "very high probability", but not absolute certainty.

Another criticism refers to the problem of "arbitrary but specific outcomes". For example, if a coin is tossed randomly 1000 times, the probability of any particular outcome occurring is roughly one in 10 300 . For any particular specific outcome of the coin-tossing process, the a priori probability that this pattern occurred is thus one in 10 300 , which is astronomically smaller than Dembski's universal probability bound of one in 10 150 . Yet we know that the post hoc probability of its happening is exactly one, since we observed it happening. This is similar to the observation that it is unlikely that any given person will win a lottery, but, eventually, a lottery will have a winner; to argue that it is very unlikely that any one player would win is not the same as proving that there is the same chance that no one will win. Similarly, it has been argued that "a space of possibilities is merely being explored, and we, as pattern-seeking animals, are merely imposing patterns, and therefore targets, after the fact." [14]

Apart from such theoretical considerations, critics cite reports of evidence of the kind of evolutionary "spontanteous generation" that Dembski claims is too improbable to occur naturally. For example, in 1982, B.G. Hall published research demonstrating that after removing a gene that allows sugar digestion in certain bacteria, those bacteria, when grown in media rich in sugar, rapidly evolve new sugar-digesting enzymes to replace those removed. [27] Another widely cited example is the discovery of nylon eating bacteria that produce enzymes only useful for digesting synthetic materials that did not exist prior to the invention of nylon in 1935.

Bees that follow a waggle dance can successfully forage without decoding the dance language information in several ways: RAGamp;BONE Woman Velvet Sneakers Navy Size 40 DfrNiFXpV

The use of the word "language" may lead to misrepresentations of the waggle dance. The Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure proposed a system of language where a sign is made up two chief components. The signifier is the physical or phonetic representation of a sign. The signified is the conceptual component. Lanvin Leather Lace Ups 7IWBh
If the dance language followed the Saussurian dyadic model of semiotics , the signifier would be the waggle dance and the signified would be the location of the foraging resource. Though the dance language may or may not follow this sort of pattern, it is not considered to be a language with syntactical grammar or a set of symbols. [17]

The waggle dance may be less efficient than once thought. Some bees observe over 50 waggle runs without successfully foraging, while others will forage successfully after observing 5 runs. [17] Likewise, studies have found that honeybees rarely make use of the information communicated in the waggle dance and seem to only do so about ten percent of the time. Brenda Zaro INES Classic heels gabo topo ZFcOTpWdsV
[20] Evidently there is a conflict between private information, or individual experience, and social information transmitted through dance communication. This sheds light on the fact that following social information is more energetically costly than foraging independently and is not always advantageous. [21] [22] Using olfactory cues and memory of plentiful foraging sites, honeybees are able to successfully forage independently without expending the potentially extensive energy it takes to process and execute the directions communicated by their fellow foragers.

The waggle dance may be adaptive in some environments and not in others, which provides a plausible explanation as to why the information provided by waggle dances are only used sparingly. Depending on weather, other competitors, and food source characteristics, transmitted information may become obsolete quickly. Giuseppe ZanottiLow Velvet Leather Sneakers 8rNW9SZES
As a result, foragers reported to be attached to their food sites and continue to revisit a single patch many times after it has become unprofitable. [24] For example, the waggle dance plays a significantly larger role in foraging when food sources are not as abundant. No21 Ruffled sandals qQG5Ss
[26] In temperate habitats, for instance, honey bee colonies routinely perform the waggle dance, but can still successfully forage when the dance is experimentally obscured. In tropical habitats, honey bee foraging is severely impaired if waggle dancing is prevented. This is thought to be due to the patchiness of resources in tropical environment versus the homogeneity of resources in temperate environments. In the tropics, food resources can come in the form of flowering trees which are rich in nectar but are scattered sparsely and bloom only briefly. Thus, in tropical zones information about forage location might be more valuable than in temperate zones. [19]

Measuring player value is harder to do in football than it is in other sports because multiple players are involved in every play. So we used ESPN’s Total Quarterback Rating (QBR), 2

Disclosure: ESPN owns FiveThirtyEight, but our research was conducted well before we had any arrangement with FiveThirtyEight.

The first step of our analysis used a “school- fixed effects ” win-probability model to isolate how each quarterback affected his team’s winning percentage. We controlled for opponent quality, home field advantage and “school-fixed effects,” because a star quarterback at a football powerhouse like the University of Florida will win more games than one at Baylor University, all other things being equal. For instance, Heisman Trophy-winners Tim Tebow and Robert Griffin III started a similar number of games and had similar average career QBRs, but Tebow won 11 more of the games he started because his team was better than Griffin’s.

From there, we took the QB’s marginal contributions and extrapolated them over an average season to estimate an expected “wins added.” For example, our results show that Tebow (2007) and Griffin (2011) added about three wins over what would have been expected from an average QB playing during their award-winning seasons. 3

Full details of the model and results can be found in our research paper .

Calculating a quarterback’s win share was the easy part; calculating his economic value is more difficult. Using eight years of BCS schools’ financial data, we estimated the increase in revenue from an additional win. 4

Football program financial data was compiled using the U.S. Department of Education database . This data may underestimate football program revenue — athletic department financial statements often include revenue “not allocable by sport” (which we did not include in our primary results) that is potentially attributable to success on the gridiron.

Using “team fixed-effects” again.

We found that, across all types of schools, the value of one additional win is close to three-quarters of a million dollars. We ran the model separately for small- and large-revenue schools, and found this figure to be consistent. 6

This estimate includes whatever expected boost current-season performance might have on the following year’s revenues.

A truly elite college quarterback can add more than four wins and over $3 million to his school’s annual football revenue, as we saw in the table above. Andrew Luck’s career at Stanford is a good case study. In 2008, Luck’s predecessor, Tavita Pritchard, averaged a QBR of just 47.0 (slightly below our sample’s mean QBR of 52.6) and the Cardinal had a 5-7 record. Our model estimated that, based on his QBR, Luck added roughly two, 4.5 and 3.5 wins in his first, 7

This page was last reviewed on July 13, 2018. Contact us with questions or comments .

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